Holidays December 30
December 30, 1922 was formed the largest, for the entire period of world history, the state of the Soviet Union. The USSR was second in terms of combat power after the United States, and significantly lagging behind the states in terms of socio-economic indicators. The republics of the founders of the Soviet Union were the peoples of the fraternal countries: Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Subsequently, the Caucasian and Asian republics were annexed to the union treaty. In the Soviet period, illiteracy was completely eliminated and the highest level of education of the population was achieved - and most importantly - free for all. Breakthroughs were made in science and technology. The first flight into space, the first artificial satellite of the Earth, the first man in space, the conquest of the atom - all these are successes that we can be proud of. Free housing, free medicine, free education, kindergartens, pioneer camps for children, a cheap rent - all these social benefits unfortunately turned out to be an overwhelming burden for the state economy and, at one point, the crisis in it led to the seizure of power in the country by traitors who collapsed the great USSR in its selfish interests. And instead of a great and powerful alliance, small weak states were formed, most of which immediately fell under the control of Western states led by the United States. A great country that no longer exists - that’s how they talk with nostalgia about the USSR in different parts of the former union.
This holiday is celebrated in the Philippines in memory of national hero writer Jose Risal. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Philippines was a colony of Spain. At that time, many supporters of the liberation of their country were organized, among them there was an exceptionally gifted man Jose Risal. In 1896, a rebellion began in Spain. Risal had left the Philippines in advance because he was familiar with the plan of the uprising, and then called it a failure. But he could only get to Suez, and there, at the request of the Spanish authorities, he was arrested, he was charged with conspiracy with the rebels and returned back to Manila. It later emerged that the illegal revolutionary society that had prepared the failed rebellion was about to make Risal the president of independent Philippines, while Risal had no idea about it. In order to attract new conspirators, the revolutionaries called Hise Risal their head. In the early morning of December 30, 1896, Risal was mistakenly accused of rebellion, inspiration, and the creation of an illegal community in the Bagumbayan field. The night before the execution, Hasse wrote his last poem, it became a masterpiece of Philippine poetry. Jose Risal is revered as a national hero, a fighter against the colonialists. The President of the Philippines is always present on the feast day of this great man. This day is considered a national holiday of this country.
Day of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar
On December 30, 1975, the government of Madagascar announced the formation of the independent Democratic Republic of Madagascar. This manifesto signified the end of French rule on Malagasy land. Since then, Madagascar citizens have been celebrating this day, the event of the founding of an independent state. The first president of the republic was F. Tsiranana. However, his policy of orientation towards Western culture and the Western economy was not accepted by the people of Madagascar. During the reign of Tsiranana, almost the entire economy of the state was sold to European and American capitalists. Protests and riots swept through the country, people demanded the resignation of the government and the president. Under pressure from internal and external forces, the president was forced to resign. Power in the country passed to General G. Ramanantsue and the civil-military government he created. Soon, a new Constitution was adopted in the country and the first democratic elections were held. Power in the state passed to the new civilian government. Now Madagascar is developing in the spirit of democracy and freedom of speech, not forgetting its unique history and culture.
December 30 on the folk calendar
December 30 honored the memory of the noble saints of Daniel, Ananias, Azariah and Misael. If you believe the ancient legend, 600 years ago, the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, along with other peasants, four youths were captured. The reigning king Nebuchadnezzar wanted to educate them at his court and teach them the Chaldean sciences. Despite this, the young guys did not forget the commandments of their faith, they refused excesses and led a decent lifestyle. For the fact that they did not forget and did not betray their faith, the Lord endowed them with wisdom, while Daniel also endowed them with insight and the gift of interpreting dreams. Once the king ordered to build, in honor of himself, a huge statue that people should worship. The noble youths flatly refused to do this, and in anger Nebuchadnezzar ordered them to be executed immediately. They threw them alive into a red-hot oven, but they remained safe and sound, even their clothes were not burnt, and there was no smell of smoke from them. Seeing such a miracle, the king was imbued with respect for Christians. Later, under the ruler Belshazzar, the prophet Daniel interpreted the fiery inscription that appeared on the wall of the palace during the feast, the inscription foreshadowed the complete fall of the kingdom of Babylon. According to legend, the young girls wanted Saint Daniel to give them at least a little of his insight, for this, before going to bed, they wrote the names of three Daniel's friends: Ananias, Azariah, and Misaila on three bay leaves, after which they put leaflets under the pillow. The girls believed that tonight they would definitely dream of a narrowed one. In ancient times, our ancestors used to say - “Danila rushes the month of December,” and brings New Year and Christmas closer. "On Danilov day the holy spirit and incense smelled," dreamed of the most impatient. On Danilov day, people paid special attention to fire. Usually the hostess drowned the stove so that there was enough heat for two days. There was also a night ritual of the festival, according to tradition, huge bonfires were lit on the street at night so that the fire dispersed the darkness and cut the cold. They also paid attention to special signs with which one could predict the weather. If frost appeared on the trees that day, then the Christmas time will be warm, and if a blizzard suddenly starts, people were happy and believed that bees would swarm well this summer.
Historical events December 30
1927 year metro opened in Tokyo
In 1920, the Japanese businessman Noritsugu Hayakawa founded the Tokyo Tika-Tetsudo company and set about building the first Japanese subway. Prior to that, Noritsugu traveled to Europe and saw what the underground railway was, he had a dream to build something similar in his homeland. And on December 30, 1927, the first metro line was opened in Tokyo. The line was not very long and connected only two stations of Asakusa and Ueno. At first, the metro was very popular to ride from one station to another, the townspeople stood in line for many hours. Later on, the metro in Tokyo expanded and developed, and At present, the length of the tracks reaches two hundred kilometers, and there are nine fully functioning lines. The Tokyo Metro is successfully combined with the railway, passengers can easily take advantage of special crossings that lead to the junction railway stations. At some stations, in order to use the services of the railway, it is enough to switch to another platform. In addition, at the Tokyo metro stations, the passenger will find a variety of various snack bars, cafes and restaurants, as well as shops and shopping centers The appearance of the Tokyo metro stations does not cause much interest, since it is mostly gray and nondescript, because the Japanese are practical and prudent, they do not consider the subway as an excursion or propaganda object, and therefore the station is very, very restrained. Nowadays, in Tokyo, the construction of metro lines continues intensively. The city is growing, and transportation problems are growing, the subway is able to solve most of the problems associated with the movement of citizens. But there are also problems in the construction of the metro - high seismic activity in the area. New construction technologies can solve some of the problems associated with the danger of earthquakes.
1916 year The death of Grigory Rasputin
Mystic, healer, psychic spoke about Grigory Rasputin. And he called himself the holy father, healing the soul and body. In St. Petersburg, Rasputin appeared in 1904 and began to preach and heal. Very soon, Empress Alexandra became aware of the wondrous man, who persuaded her husband, Emperor Nicholas, to call Rasputin to court and ask him to cure their son Alexei. So Rasputin was at the imperial court. Despite the whole adventurous personality of Rasputin, he still possessed some kind of extrasensory abilities, since the treatment carried out by him significantly improved the condition of the prince. The queen, convinced of the healing power of Gregory, showered him with all kinds of favors and brought him closer to the court. However, Rasputin began to use the empress's loyalty for his own purposes. Through the tsarina, he began to actively intervene in state affairs, for his services in solving any issue he took bribes, and at night he arranged drunken revels and orgies. In order to save the honor of the imperial family, in a camp close to the tsar, the nobility a conspiracy arose against Rasputin, in which the closest relatives of the imperial family also participated. At first, it was decided to poison Rasputin, but the cyanide mixed in food and drinks did not work on him, then one of the Yusupov conspirators shot at Rasputin. But he managed to jump out into the street, but even there the killers were waiting for him, Grand Duke Dmitry and Purishkevich, they shot at Gregory point-blank. He tried to get to his feet, but the conspirators grabbed him, put him in a bag of cargo and threw him into the hole. Thus ended the life of the most mysterious man of that time.
1927 year Obtaining synthetic rubber
In 1926, the Council of People's Commissars announced a competition for the best model for the production of artificial rubber. The amount of the bonus for the work performed was also announced - 100,000 rubles. The terms of the competition provided for not only the presentation of the full production scheme, but also the result of this production, namely a couple of kilograms of finished rubber. In addition, it was prescribed to develop and put on the industrial stream production of this product. Based on the difficulties of the initial period of the formation of Soviet power, the country's leadership also demanded that the production process be cheap and affordable, and its cost would not exceed the cost of natural rubber. The chemist Sergey Lebedev, who has been dealing with this problem for many years, won the competition. In the laboratory of the military medical academy, the scientist and his students managed to get artificial rubber, the raw material for which was oil, and later alcohol. The catalyst of the process, Lebedev chose sodium oxide. On January 1, 1928, the scientist submitted to the state commission the product received and all the accompanying technical documentation. Despite the stringent conditions of the competition, the product and production project from Lebedev received a government award. Soon in Leningrad, a factory was built, according to the project of Lebedev and the country for the first time received its own rubber. And in 1931, the scientist was awarded the Order of Lenin for his services to the state.
1947 year terrorist attack at Haifa refinery
On December 30, militants from the Jewish nationalist organization Ezel threw grenades at a group of Arab workers at the entrance to the Refinery. Killed 6 people, about fifty were injured of varying severity. After the attack, Arab workers and residents of the town of Ballad al-Sheikh broke into the factory and staged a bloody massacre of Jewish workers. Angry Arabs beat the Jews to death, using hammers, scrap metal and rods. The administration of the plant took refuge from the rebels in the administration building, without bothering to call the police. During the battle, more than forty workers were killed, about fifty survived, but were badly crippled. The police and troops arrived, as they say, "to analyze hats," only after an hour and a half. According to the results of the investigation, it was found that part of the Arab factory workers did not take part in the massacre, but rather helped the Jews to hide from the angry Arabs. It was also established that the pogrom was not a planned action, but arose spontaneously in the framework of mass affect. As is known for the entire period of coexistence, armed conflicts constantly arise between the Jewish and Arab populations.
Born on December 30
Andrey Sova (1912-1994), Soviet actor
A talented actor was born in Odessa on December 30, 1912, in a working-class family. From childhood, I was known as a cheerful and energetic child who grew up on Odessa streets and knew perfectly well the unique Odessa folklore. After school, he studied at the Naval College, then went to work for the merchant fleet. On a merchant ship he went all over Europe.
At 26, he graduated from the theater school. He began acting in films even before the war. His first films were: “Derbent Tanker,” “Mysterious Island”, “Young Years”, “I am a Chernomorets” and others. Andrei Sova, created a number of colorful and forever memorable images on the screen, starring in the films: “Maxim”, “There is such a guy,” “The Queen of gas stations,” “Ordinary History,” etc. Apart from the cinema, Andrei Korneevich spent a lot of time on theater activities. For a long time, Sova worked at the Kiev Officers House, then he was invited to the Ukrkontsert. In 1960, the actor awarded the honorary title of Honored Artist of Ukraine, this event ow fell with the birth of a daughter. Joint performances of the actor with the duet “Plugs and Tarapunka” were very popular. For the last 20 years of his life, the actor practically didn’t act, due to a serious illness of the spine, which did not allow the artist to move around fully.
Vasily I (1371-1425), Grand Duke of Muscovy
The son of the legendary Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily, was born on December 30, 1371. Made about the Russian land. In his reign, he did a lot to unite the Russian lands under the Moscow protectorate. With arms and diplomacy Vasily I annexed Nizhny Novgorod, Vologda, Murom and the people of Komi to Muscovy. He waged continuous wars with the Lithuanian principality and with the Horde. In 1390, Vasily married the daughter of the Lithuanian prince, Sophia. However, the marriage was committed against the will of the prince, because Vasily gave his consent to the marriage under the pressure of circumstances. In 1386, after an unsuccessful battle with the forces of the Golden Horde, the prince fled from the Mongol persecution and was accidentally captured by the Lithuanian prince Vitovt. The prince of Lithuania, seeing Vasily’s captivity as a great gain, forced the prince to marry his daughter Sophia in exchange for his release. The Lithuanian prince in his decision pursued dynastic interests beneficial to Lithuania. Vasily tried to break out of vassal dependence on the Tatar Khanate and often refused to pay tribute to the Mongols. However, after this the Horde raids and robberies followed, but the Russian army gave a worthy rebuff to the enslavers.As a result, Muscovy continued to remain in vassal dependence on the Golden Horde. In his reign, the prince ordered his people to call themselves not surnames, but surnames.
Ahmed III (1673-1736), Turkish Sultan
Inherited the Ottoman throne after the death of his brother Mustafa II. Born December 30, 1673. The reign of Ahmed is marked by a fierce confrontation with the Russian Kingdom. The Sultan intended to create an anti-Russian coalition and maintained excellent relations with the enemies of Russia, the king of Sweden, Prussia and the Crimean Khanate. He sheltered the Swedish king Charles XII after his defeat in the Battle of Poltava. The war with Russia brought Ahmed great political and territorial dividends. Under the terms of the Prut Peace, Turkey, the Azov possessions of Russia and the waters of the Sea of Azov withdrew from the Russian fleet. The Sultan also fought with the Venetian Republic. However, this confrontation was not successful for Turkey. The Sultan lost Serbia, Bosnia and Wallachia in the war against Venice. In domestic politics, the Sultan intended to carry out progressive reforms. On his orders, the Ottoman embassy visited France to study the life, life and economic opportunities of the Western world. The Turks brought tulip seeds from Europe and soon these wonderful flowers bloomed throughout the empire. The experience of typography was also adopted. Turkey itself began to print books. The army and navy have undergone deep modernization thanks to the knowledge brought from Europe. Historians call the era of Ahmed III the era of enlightenment and the heyday of Turkish culture. As a result of an unsuccessful Afghan campaign, he was overthrown by the rebellious Janissaries.
Titus Flavius Vespasian (41-81), Roman emperor
The eminent Roman emperor was born on December 30, 41. He was brought up at the court of the emperor Nero, along with his son Britannic. From an early youth, he showed a talent for military art, won many victories over the British and the Germans. For this he was awarded the post of military tribune. He took part in the suppression of the Jewish rebellion, where he proved himself to be a skilled, but cruel commander. Destroyed the Jerusalem temple. In honor of his victories in Israel, a triumphal arch was erected in his homeland. With the support of the ruler of Syria, Mucian and a number of Roman senators, he brought his father to power in Rome. Upon his return to Rome, he began to rule together with his father, called himself emperor and ruled on behalf of his father. By nature he was extremely cruel, conspiracies everywhere seemed to him, and he ruthlessly sent suspects to the chopping block. The people and nobles did not like the politics of a family duet. After the death of his father, Titus became the full ruler of Rome and unexpectedly for everyone absolutely changed the previous policy of terror. He began to punish scammers, acquitted many convicts, allocated large sums of money for festivities, built many theaters and termas. He pursued a constructive and compromise policy with the Senate, which was not the case under any emperor. As if repenting, the emperor tried every day to do good deeds and the people forgot the old sins of the ruler. After his death, he was mourned as a holy man.
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), English writer and poet
The first English Nobel laureate was born on December 30, 1865 in Bombay, in colonial India, into an intelligent and educated family. At six, Redyard was sent to England to receive a full education. He returned to India after 10 years, at the age of sixteen. Immediately began working as an assistant editor in a local newspaper in the city of Lahore. An erudite young man over the years, he surprised others with his deep knowledge of geography, political science, sociology and other humanities. Thanks to the stories of his father, the boy knew India and its culture early. At a young age, Kipling became an opponent of the colonial regime in India. Annual trips around the country gave a lot of knowledge for the future literary works of the writer. The writer spent his whole life on the road and he always made travel notes, which later became serious assistants in his work. His first poem, "Ballads of East and West," made a splash in the English literary community, Kipling suddenly becomes a celebrity. The new work "Songs of the Barracks" was written in a new poetic manner. Soon, the writer goes on a trip to America. There he will write his best works: “The Jungle Book”, “A Mass of Fiction”, “Works of the Day”, “Fairy Tales”, “Kim” and others. Being an extremely famous writer, Kipling showed extraordinary modesty at the same time and preferred to live away from metropolitan life. Here he lived his life in family comfort and love.
Birthday December 30
Nikita, Denis, Peter, Daniel, Nikolay